About Fixtures 

Fixtures used in lighting can be subdivided in to different categories:

  • Interior lighting
  • Exterior lighting
  • Emergency lighting
  • Special applications

Interior lighting

The concept of interior lighting can be applicable to a large array of fields, each with its own specific set of characteristics.

In an industrial environment a careful analysis of the specific visual tasks is vital to determine the relevant lighting parameters. More often than not productivity will be the goal, which should be supported by the lighting used. For this to be achieved, emphasis has to be put on proper levels of illuminance, coming from the right direction without unnecessary blindness. All colours in the production process need to be clearly visible.

In an office-environment the levels of illuminance must also be sufficient so visual tasks can be executed without excess amounts of effort by the eyes. Generally, there is more attention to comfort in areas like this. This puts greater emphasis on other types of variables: Glare limitation, colour rendering that clearly portrays skin tone and a lightcolour that matches the office interior. 

When it comes to educational purposes, light often has close to the same specifications as an office interior. However, special attention needs to be given to the levels of vertical illuminance in areas where lectures are being held.

A specific characteristic for the health sector is that skin tones have to be portrayed in an almost perfect manner. Especially rooms where procedures are being executed, high levels of illuminance are often asked. These levels are almost always achieved with specially designed fixtures.

To determine the levels of illuminance for sports indoor usually the speed of the sport (or ball) is important. For those types of sports in which the players often need to look up (volleybal, basketball), light can not be too bright. A situation in which light is emitted from the walls can help in this case. Generally, especially for the spectators, vertical light is preferred. This especially applies to areas where TV-recordings are being shot.

In retail stores, displaying the merchandise in the most attractive manner is paramount. Aside from regular light that serves to help the customer find its way through the store, special spotlights are used to draw attention to specific items. High amounts of colour rendering are a requirement here.

Light in museums is strongly dependant on the objects on display. Some items (paper, textile) can discolour under light that is too bright. Others, like ceramics, will not be affected in the same way. In general low levels of illuminance are the norm. Objects on display will be seperately lit with specifically adjusted lightsources. Excellent colour rendering is a must.

In restaurants, bars or cafes light is used as a way to support the atmosphere. Preferably fixtures with warm colours and excellent rendering are used.

In residential houses the choice is obviously dependant on the personal preferance of its inhabitants. Yet it is possible to set guidelines for specific rooms here as well.

Exterior lighting 

When it comes to exterior lighting, different situations require different guidelines.

Levels of illuminance used to lighten roads are dependant on both traffic speed and traffic intensity. Exterior lighting makes use of road surface luminance in contrast to illuminance. To diminish blindness, different conditions regarding the fixture's luminance must be met. Outside city limits there are barely any regulations with regards to colour display, inside the city limits a minimal colour distinction is desirable. Tunnels are usually equipped with lichting that adjusts for differences between day and night. During the day, differences in brightness between both the entrance and exit and the middle part of the tunnel must be accounted for. At night the opposite takes place; the level of street lighting will usually be lower than the level in the middle of the tunnel.

For residential areas the most important unit is once again illuminance. Here also a proper vertical component is crucial for the recognition of oncoming traffic. A minimal colour distinction is desirable.

When it comes to lighting in bicycle lanes and walkways, it must be sufficient to recognize possible obstacles. In general the lightings main purpose is to give a sense of ease and security to cyclists and strollers.

Emergency lighting

Emergency lighting is the lighting that is turned on when normal fixtures are failing, for example due to a power surge. There are different types of emergency lighting, namely escape route lighting, safety lighting and auxilairy lighting.

Escape route lighting is the part of emergency lighting that needs to guarantee that an escape route is adequately recognizable. Illuminance at every point of the floor along the escape route of this type of lighting can generally never be less than 1% of the illuminance of the regular fixture's lighting.

Safety lighting is the lighting that has to guarantee the safety of people partaking in potentially hazardous work activities. The levels of illuminance on the work surface should not be less than 5% of the illumance of a regular fixture's lighting.

Auxilairy lighting is meant to make sure normal activities can proceed as usual.

A new development is the introduction of visual aid systems that are particularly useful in situations where there is a lot of smoke present. Such a system is already in use in airplane corridors.

Special applications

A lot of the special applications for lighting have to do with embellishing parks, satues, monuments etc.

A unique way in which this can take place is in combination with sound. The expertise of the operator will determine the degree in which the beautification will take place.

About Fixtures 
Fixtures used in lighting can be subdivided in to different categories:
  • Interior lighting
  • Exterior lighting
  • Emergency lighting
  • Special applications

Interior lighting

The concept of interior lighting can be applicable to a large array of fields, each with its own specific set of characteristics. In an industrial environment a careful analysis of the specific visual tasks is vital to determine the relevant lighting parameters. More often than not productivity will be the goal, which should be supported by the lighting used. For this to be achieved, emphasis has to be put on proper levels of illuminance, coming from the right direction without unnecessary blindness. All colours in the production process need to be clearly visible. In an office-environment the levels of illuminance must also be sufficient so visual tasks can be executed without excess amounts of effort by the eyes. Generally, there is more attention to comfort in areas like this. This puts greater emphasis on other types of variables: Glare limitation, colour rendering that clearly portrays skin tone and a lightcolour that matches the office interior.  When it comes to educational purposes, light often has close to the same specifications as an office interior. However, special attention needs to be given to the levels of vertical illuminance in areas where lectures are being held. A specific characteristic for the health sector is that skin tones have to be portrayed in an almost perfect manner. Especially rooms where procedures are being executed, high levels of illuminance are often asked. These levels are almost always achieved with specially designed fixtures. To determine the levels of illuminance for sports indoor usually the speed of the sport (or ball) is important. For those types of sports in which the players often need to look up (volleybal, basketball), light can not be too bright. A situation in which light is emitted from the walls can help in this case. Generally, especially for the spectators, vertical light is preferred. This especially applies to areas where TV-recordings are being shot. In retail stores, displaying the merchandise in the most attractive manner is paramount. Aside from regular light that serves to help the customer find its way through the store, special spotlights are used to draw attention to specific items. High amounts of colour rendering are a requirement here. Light in museums is strongly dependant on the objects on display. Some items (paper, textile) can discolour under light that is too bright. Others, like ceramics, will not be affected in the same way. In general low levels of illuminance are the norm. Objects on display will be seperately lit with specifically adjusted lightsources. Excellent colour rendering is a must. In restaurants, bars or cafes light is used as a way to support the atmosphere. Preferably fixtures with warm colours and excellent rendering are used. In residential houses the choice is obviously dependant on the personal preferance of its inhabitants. Yet it is possible to set guidelines for specific rooms here as well.

Exterior lighting 

When it comes to exterior lighting, different situations require different guidelines. Bij verkeerswegen wordt het verlichtingsniveau bepaald door de snelheden waarmee gereden wordt en door de verkeersintensiteit. In tegenstelling tot de binnenverlichting wordt hier niet de verlichtingssterkte gebruikt maar de wegdekluminantie. De verblindingseisen stellen beperkingen aan de toegelaten armatuurluminantie. Buiten de bebouwde kom worden nauwelijks eisen gesteld aan de kleurweergave, terwijl binnen de bebouwde kom een minimale kleuronderscheiding wenselijk is. Tunnels kennen meestal een flexibele schakel- of regelbare verlichting voor de verschillen in dag- en nachtsituatie. Overdag moet zowel bij de ingang als bij de uitgang het grote helderheidverschil tussen het daglicht en de verlichting in het middendeel van de tunnel worden opgevangen. ’s Nachts treedt de omgekeerde situatie op; het niveau van de straatverlichting zal in het algemeen lager zijn dan het niveau in het midden van de tunnel. For residential areas the most important unit is once again illuminance. Here also a proper vertical component is crucial for the recognition of oncoming traffic. A minimal colour distinction is desirable. When it comes to lighting in bicycle lanes and walkways, it must be sufficient to recognize possible obstacles. In general the lightings main purpose is to give a sense of ease and security to cyclists and strollers.

Emergency lighting

Emergency lighting is the lighting that is turned on when normal fixtures are failing, for example due to a power surge. There are different types of emergency lighting, namely escape route lighting, safety lighting and auxilairy lighting. Escape route lighting is the part of emergency lighting that needs to guarantee that an escape route is adequately recognizable. Illuminance at every point of the floor along the escape route of this type of lighting can generally never be less than 1% of the illuminance of the regular fixture's lighting. Safety lighting is the lighting that has to guarantee the safety of people partaking in potentially hazardous work activities. The levels of illuminance on the work surface should not be less than 5% of the illumance of a regular fixture's lighting. Auxilairy lighting is meant to make sure normal activities can proceed as usual. A new development is the introduction of visual aid systems that are particularly useful in situations where there is a lot of smoke present. Such a system is already in use in airplane corridors.

Special applications

A lot of the special applications for lighting have to do with embellishing parks, satues, monuments etc. A unique way in which this can take place is in combination with sound. The expertise of the operator will determine the degree in which the beautification will take place.
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